Using Spire for Research

Reveal the data underlying health, performance, and behavior.


In situ neurophysiological data

Spire reports data correlated with phenomena like arousal, cognition, and emotion. Until now, these signals were too invasive to measure in daily life. Spire data helps researchers discover factors driving health and performance.

A picture of the whole day

Monitor what’s going on during the 86-96%* of the day when your participants are working, meeting, commuting, eating, using products, and generally living the bulk of their lives. What are their cognitive/emotional patterns and are they changing?
By tracking by physical activity in tandem with cardiorespiratory patterns, Spire gives researchers a more complete picture of a participant’s day.

*Bassett, D., et al. (2010). Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity and Health Behaviors in U.S. Adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.


Discrete and unobtrusive

Spire strikes a unique balance of sensing high-quality data streams while being unobtrusive enough for all-day wear.


Combines monitoring with intervention

Deliver in-the-moment cognitive and emotional interventions and use data to evaluate the impact. The in-app guidance complements existing protocols and offers potential for custom interventions.


The only device to comprehensively track respiration

Instead of inferring gross trends based on cardiac information, Spire senses respiratory effort directly from participants.

Easy access to participant data

All sensor data is available for later analysis in JSON/CSV format using a simple API. Battery lasts ~1 week on a 3-hour charge. Requires no direct skin contact. Academic discounts available for approved institutions.


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Reference Papers

The following studies expand our understanding of respiratory neurophysiology as well as how it can be used as an intervention.

Yackle, K., Schwarz, L., Kam, K., Sorokin, J., Hugeunard, J., Feldman, J., Luo, L., Krasnow, M. (2017). Breathing control center neurons that promote arousal in mice. Science. 1411-1415.

Moraveji, N., Santoro, E., Smith, E., Kane, A., Crum, A., Susi, M. (2017). Wearable Device Sensing Respiration Patterns Reduces Symptoms of Distress in Knowledge Workers. Anxiety and Depression Association of America. Early Results Posters. San Francisco, CA.

Wielgosz J, Schuyler BS, Lutz A, Davidson RJ. (2016). Long-term mindfulness training is associated with reliable differences in resting respiration rate. Nature – Scientific Reports. Jun 7;6:27533.

Lin IM, Tai LY, Fan SY. (2014). Breathing at a rate of 5.5 breaths per minute with equal inhalation-to-exhalation ratio increases heart rate variability. Journal of Psychophysiology. Mar;91(3):206-11.

Seppälä, E., Nitschke, J., Tudorascu, D., Hayes, A., Goldstein, M., Nguyen, D., Perlman, D. Davidson, R. (2014). Breathing-Based Meditation Decreases Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in U.S. Military Veterans: A Randomized Controlled Longitudinal Study. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 27 (4): 397.

Everly, G.S., Lating, J.M., (2013). A Clinical Guide to the Treatment of the Human Stress Response, Chapter 11: Voluntary Control of Respiration Patterns. Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

Park E, Oh H, Kim T. (2013). The effects of relaxation breathing on procedural pain and anxiety during burn care. Burns. Sep;39(6):1101-6.

Vlemincx, E. (2013). Do not worry, be mindful: Effects of induced worry and mindfulness on respiratory variability in a non-anxious population. Journal of Psychophysiology. Feb;87(2):147-51.

Plarre, K., Raij, A., Hossain, M., Ali, A., Nakajima, M., al’Absi, M., Ertin, E., Kamarck, T., Kumar, S., Scott, M., Siewiorek, D., Smailagic, A., & Wittmers, L. (2011). Continuous Inference of Psychological Stress from Sensory Measurements Collected in the Natural Environment. Proceedings of IPSN 2011, Chicago, IL.

Delgado, L.C., Guerra, P., Perakakis, P., Mata, J.L., Pérez, M.N., Vila, J. (2009). Psychophysiological correlates of chronic worry: cued versus non-cued fear reaction. Journal of Psychophysiology 74 (3), 280-287.

Wilhelm, F.H., Trabert, W., Roth, W.T. (2001). Physiologic instability in panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 49, pp. 596–605.